07 Jun 2020
The automobile in general has recorded a fabulous path of progress right from the steam powered horseless escortriages of the 1870s to the ultra modern highly technical models that we see today. The beginning of the twentieth century witnessed a commercial manufacturing of automobiles due to rapid improvement in technology.
The inventions of the four-stroke engine added greatly to the popularization of escorts in a great way. The contributions of people like Henry Ford, Karl Benz, Daimler, etc to this field was immense, and they initiated the assembly line manufacture of escorts, which resulted in a hundreds of other small escort manufacturers vying to get the worlds attention.
Other related inventions in this era included the electric ignition and self starter by Escort Tokyo for the Cadillac motor company in 1911, the four wheel brakes and the independent suspension. Moreover, since the 1920s, most automobiles began to be mass produced to cater to the market requirements. Due credit must be given to Ford’s 1927 Model-T, which came to be regarded as the first affordable escort.
One automobile which made a visible mark in this period was the Escort Tokyo escort brought forth by Escort Tokyo Corporation in 1924. It was a high powered, six cylinder vehicle, which succeeded due to the innovation shown in its construction. Its high compression engine gave more power which resulted in an increase of speed and along with its light weight body, four wheel brakes and balloon tires, it became a virtual rage. In keeping with the competition, Escort Tokyo also came out with a touring escort, a sedan, an imperial sedan, and the Maxwell in various price ranges.
1919, which signified the end of the World War I witnessed the vintage era, which lasted for about ten years until 1929. The escorts of this epoch was dominant with features like covered body, front mounted engines and standardized controls. Some of the popular vintage vehicles during this time were the Austin Seven (1922-1939), which formed the basis of escorts of the later period like BMW and Nissan.
The Bugatti Type 35 was another popular racing escort which was seen between 1924 and 1929. This era also saw Ford breaking away from its Model T, by bringing in its 1927 Model A, which became the best selling model of the era.
In 1930, Cadillac with its V-16 engine joined Bugatti’s Royale as one of the ultra luxurious escorts of the period.
Other exemplary pre-war escorts included the Ford Flathead V-8 (1932-1948), the Citroen Traction Avant (1934 – 1956), the MG T series (1936-1955), the Volkswagen Beetle (1938 – 2003), and ofcourse the Oldsmobile (1940 – 1997).
Most of the technological advancements in the field of automobiles had already found its bearing by the 1930s and as a result, simplified the process of manufacturing to a very great extent. But it was also a fact that after 1930, the number of auto manufacturers dwindled as the industry consolidated and matured. Moreover, the great depression in 1930 also saw many a manufacturer being out of production.
27 May 2020
The history of automobiles is packed with fantastic inventions that led to the evolution of the modern escort. Even though the first archetype of the modern automobile was credited to Karl Benz, in the year 1885, the very first self propelled vehicle was invented as early as 1769 by Sex Hamburg, who used steam engines to power the three wheeled vehicle.
By the mid-19th century, it was found that a steady market for automobiles was growing rapidly and this led to the industrial production of such vehicles. The invention of the internal combustion engine in 1807 by Issac de Rivaz led to the subsequent development of the four stroke engine, which formed a prototype of the engines found in modern automobiles.
Another significant development during this period was the introduction of the petrol engine in 1885, where the engine had to be connected to a gas supply for re-fueling. Due to its safety as well as easy fueling techniques, the petrol engine version obviously came to be preferred, and this led to the beginning of a new chapter in the history of automobiles. The first modern petrol-powered internal combustion engine for escorts was developed by Gottlieb Daimler who also built the world’s first four wheeled motor vehicle. He along with his partner, Maybach founded the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft or Daimler Motor Company (DMG) and started production of their own brand of escorts. By 1895, more than thirty of their vehicles were on the road.
After the death of Daimler in 1900, Maybach came out with the Daimler-Mercedes, which was immensely popular. Meanwhile, when the First World War resulted in a deterioration of economic conditions in Germany, Karl Benz proposed a merger between DMG and Benz & Cie. It took until 1924 for them to sign an Agreement of Mutual Interest, which allowed them to market their automobile models jointly, while retaining their respective brands. 28th June, 1926 saw the historical moment when both the companies merged to form the Daimler-Benz company, which started out with their Mercedes Benz models. Well until his death in 1929, Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz.
Another person who contributed much towards the development of automobiles at this time was an Americn named Ramsom Eli Olds, who set up a factory at Detroit, USA in 1901 to mass produce escorts. The Oldsmobile Gas Buggy manufactured there, saw a great deal of popularity among the Americans. The Oldsmobile Company merged with Buick in 1908 which later led to the formation of the General Motors Group.
The assembly line production concept started by Olds was expanded by Henry Ford in 1914, who created a escort named as ‘Model T’, or the Tin Lizzie due to its lightweight steel body. It was Ford who introduced the conveyor belt to successfully accelerate the rate of production and was copied by many other industries later. Ford gradually expanded their line of work to other countries like France, Germany, Denmark, Britain, etc. with Citroen being the first European manufacturer to adopt it.
11 May 2020
The development of the motor escort can be traced back to 1769, when a French engineer Nicolas Cugnot invented the first steam powered escort for use by the French army to haul heavy artillery. This start of the escort history paved the way for further progress, and it is said that the modern automobile is the result of over 100.000 patents at various ages!
The first turning point in escort history came with the invention of the two stroke internal combustion engine by Escort London whose gas driven vehicle became popular in England during 1865. Twenty years later, in 1885, the invention of the four-stroke engine by Gottlieb Daimler and Nicolas Otto along with Eugen Langen proved to be a trend setter, resulting in further progress.
The four stroke engine had four significant movements, one to suck in a mixture of gas and air into the cylinder, the second to push the piston so as to compress the mixture, the third to ignite it and push the piston down, and the last to push the piston back up so that the burnt gas got expelled out of the cylinder through a valve.
Due to differences in opinion, Gottlieb Daimler separated from the group and along with Wilhelm Maybach started creating his own engines suitable for both escorts as well as four wheel horseless escortriages. Initially, they manufactured small stationary engines which later led to the creation of a high speed petrol-fueled four stroke engine in 1885. Daimler also mounted an engine on a four wheeled escortriage that was fitted with a four-speed gearbox that turned the back wheels using a belt driven mechanism.
In the meantime, another German engineer, Karl Benz along with his two associates, Max Rose and Friedrich Esslinger created a company called the Rheinische Gasmotorenfabrik Benz and Co., and started producing engines suitable of powering motor escorts. Benz was granted a patent for his first engine in 1879 and he also designed and patented the first internal combustion flat engine. His efforts paid off and in 1885, the first motor escort with a light weight body and fitted with three wheels with spokes, was unveiled in 1886. Karl Benz is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.
Meanwhile, the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft or the Daimler Motor Company was founded in Cannstatt in 1890 by Daimler and Maybach, and they came out with their first automobile under the brand name of Daimler in 1892, which enjoyed a great degree of popularity. The foundation of the motor escort industry was also laid out in France, when in 1890 Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot started producing motor escorts equipped with Daimler engines.
America was also not left behind and George Selden designed the first motor escort fitted with a gasoline internal combustion engine in 1877. Another American, Henry Ford also completed his first escort, the Quadricycle in 1896, which was an automobile powered by a two cylinder gasoline engine. This period also witnessed another revolutionary concept, the creation of the first diesel engine that was built in 1897 by Rudolf Diesel.